"I believe the American people are entitled to a more thorough explanation than has been given them by the Air Force....I think we owe it to the people to establish credibility regarding UFOs, and to produce the greatest possible enlightenment of the subject."
—Former U.S. President Gerald Ford
A mysterious flying object crashes to earth
Something crashed in the desert not far from Roswell, New Mexico, on the night of July 2, 1947. That is undeniable, and even the USAF confirms it. Something was definitely found on that fateful night.
According to the testimony, witnesses heard an odd explosion in the midst of a severe electrical thunderstorm. Not the one strike and that's it. It was a repeated strike on something that was attracting to it. The following morning a large amount of dark-grey metallic foil and plastic-like beams and sheets were found scattered over a wide area. From the way the materials were distributed on the ground in a fan-shape pattern, spread over an area about a mile by 200 to 400 feet wide with most of the wreckage concentrated at the narrowest end, the object was travelling at high speeds to the west when it exploded above ground.
Nearly 200 kilometers to the west, a dark-grey metallic disk with bodies scattered around and inside the object was whisked away under great security by the US Army.
Major Jesse A. Marcel of the Roswell Army Air Field (Roswell AAF) who has extensive experience in aerial objects, claims, after inspecting the wreckage at the first crash site, that it "...was definitely not a weather or tracking device, nor was it any sort of plane or missile". (1)
Bill Brazel, another witness and the son of the rancher (William Brazel)who first discovered and notified authorities in Roswell of the wreckage, claims he saw pieces of a dark greyish metallic foil found at the crash site among other odd materials. He described the foil as "very thin and extremely lightweight. The odd thing about this foil was that you could wrinkle it and lay it back down and it immediately resumed its original shape." (2)
Other witnesses, including those claiming to have loaded the material onto several B-29 bombers under strict security for scientific examination at Wright-Patterson AAF (now Wright-Patterson Air Force Base) in Dayton, Ohio, USA, said they saw a lead-coloured, "dirty stainless steel" (3) or dark-grey metallic foil that "could unfold itself" after slightly warming it with their body and bending it in one hand.
What's the USAF explanation?
Preliminary examination of the debris at the first crash site by Major Jesse A. Marcel, and later by other personnel at Roswell AAF on receiving the materials, concluded the object was not a weather balloon or any known man-made flying object. To support this claim, Colonel William Blanchard, the commander of Roswell AAF, ordered his public information officer Second Lieutenant Walter Haut to issue a news release stating a "flying disc" was recovered and is being sent to higher headquarters.
Suddenly, within two hours of the news release, General Roger Ramey at Fort Worth AAF issued a new story to the media (only a former military photographer working for a newspaper arrived at the meeting) claiming it was a weather balloon. No special materials were mentioned in the construction of the balloon. To support the new claim, General Ramey permitted a news reporter, James Bond Johnson, to take several photographs of the remains of a weather balloon put on temporary display in his office. In those photographs reveal a bright-silvery and heavily crinkled metallic foil together with some beams and plastic tape. Later the bright silvery and highly crinkly weather balloon and the original smooth and slightly curved pieces of the dark-grey shape-memory foil and other original materials were sent to Wright-Patterson AFB in Ohio for scientific analysis.
To this day, the public has not been shown the weather balloon that was used or the original materials found on the rancher's property. More telling is how the USAF has refused to explain the outcome of that scientific analysis, including what the differences were between the dark-grey shape-memory foil of the original Roswell debris and the highly crinkly and bright-silvery aluminium foil of the weather balloon. Surely the military would know. The scientists do after examining the scientific literature and noting the considerable interest by the USAF in NiTi and certain other titanium-based shape-memory alloys. There must be a military report discussing these differences and the nature of the object found. Yet remarkably, the report has never been released. To this day, we must simply rely on the word of General Ramey that it was a weather balloon and nothing else.
In 1992, the USAF elaborated on this explanation a little further following concerns from congressman Steven Schiff that the incident continued to be handled by the military under considerable secrecy despite requests for further information from the public after all this time. USAF finally gave its new explanation: it was a secret weather balloon, most probably from Project Mogul, that was designed to detect nuclear explosions in Russia. But now that the public knows the reason for the secrecy, there is nothing more secret to know about. Everything that could have been said and told about the crash has been revealed.
Is this true?
Was it a weather balloon?
However, on examining one of the photographs taken by Mr Johnson, we see General Ramey had inadvertently held a top secret memo to the camera in one of the photos. Apart from the fact that the foil clearly wasn't a shape-memory alloy, digital analysis of the memo shown in the photograph showed a continued belief by the military in a "disk" with "victims" and a desire to use a weather balloon and dummies at the very end of the memo as an alternative explanation should media representatives ask questions about the Roswell incident, especially any hearsay from civilians of anything remotely connected to a flying disc and possible aliens. Only one media representative was allowed at the meeting, and he didn't ask about "bodies", making it easier for General Ramey not to mention dummies as a possible explanation. Despite this, the presence of "victims" (allegedly recovered not far from the initial wreckage site) is significant since the original news release never mentioned the existence of "victims". Nor did the civilian witnesses at the first crash site ever observe bodies.
So what are these "bodies"? What did the military find in the desert not far from the initial wreckage site?
In 1992, the USAF eventually had to introduce the dummies explanation as this "bodies" situation was growing in interest with more witnesses claiming to have seen the "bodies".
However, during the recovery operation, military personnel at Roswell AFB were talking quietly among themselves of something unusual. A media representative who attempted to arrive at the crash site only to be taken away and held at the base for a period of time, over heard words to the effect that "bodies" were found and he assumed "little green men" in association for a recovered flying disc was the go.
Some military witnesses have come forth to claim up to three bodies were found dropped onto the ground some 30 kilometres from the initial crash scene. Does this mean there were bodies? If so, who died? And, how come we still do not know the names of these victims?
And why maintain the description for the object found on the desert floor as a "disk" in the secret memo? If the USAF is certain the premature news release was not a disk, shouldn't the memo had not been written, let alone mention "victims" and a "disc"? To the USAF, clearly the whole incident was nothing more than the remains of a downed weather balloon. Perhaps it was shaped like a disk? Either way, just show what it was that was picked up and be done with it. No secret memo would be required for that. Unfortunately, the photographs from Mr Johnson do not in any way determine the shape of the object. It was impossible to tell. Even the quantities shown to Mr Johnson were in no way indicative of what was seen by other witnesses.
But the most telling thing of all is how the metallic materials showed absolutely no evidence of having returned to its original smooth shape. What was shown to Mr Johnson in an attempt to quash the incident as quickly as possible was the crinkly remains of aluminium foil. This is the bright silvery variety of metal, not the dark-grey as one would expect if the military had been listening to the witnesses carefully. So where did this original Roswell foil disappear to? What did the military scientists learn about it? And where is the report to support this analysis so we can be certain it is a weather balloon? Come to think of it, what is so secret about the foil that it cannot be told to this day despite NiTi and its properties being officially known since 1958 at the US Naval Ordnance Laboratory? Indeed, no scientist ever knew NiTi was a shape-memory alloy before 1958. Yet the USAF was interested in a particularly pure sample of NiTi in 1948 (the only way to reveal the shape-memory effect).
Just to add to the mystery, a document allegedly written by General Nathan F. Twining, dated July 15, 1947, discussed unusual fabrication techniques and the internal structure of a flying disk allegedly recovered in New Mexico. The information is so unusually detailed for a flying disk that it revealed a hitherto unknown electromagnetic technology.
Then we have a retired high-ranking USAF General who stated to investigators that the dark-grey alloy probably contained titanium.
Was the foil a metal?
Owing to the foil's plastic-like property of returning to its original shape, the less-educated civilian witnesses had great difficulties in how to describe the foil they saw. Should they call it a plastic? Or was it really a metal? Because of the risk of being wrong in describing precisely what the foil was, civilian witnesses were more inclined to use the terms "metallic" or "metal-like" to describe the general color and behaviour of the foil.
Was the foil a metal or plastic?
However, the military witnesses the ones who had more time to look more closely and to test the foil and be trained to understand differences between metals and plastics are much more certain the foil was a “metal”.
For example, Major Jesse Marcel said:
...But something that is more astounding is that the piece of metal that we brought back was so thin, just like the tinfoil in a pack of cigarette paper. I didn't pay too much attention to that at first, until one of the GIs came to me and said, "You know the metal that was in there? I tried to bend that stuff and it won't bend. I even tried it with a sledge hammer. You can't make a dent on it."
CIC Officer Bill Ricket who was present at the Roswell AAF to test and gather information about the foil, said:
We collected a boxful of samples of this material. As I recall, there were some metal samples here, too, of that same sort of thin foil stuff.
First Lieutenant Robert Shirkey said:
A call came in to have a B-29 ready to go as soon as possible....Blanchard waved to somebody, and approximately five people came in the front door, down the hallway, and onto the ramp to climb into the airplane, carrying parts of the crashed flying saucer. I got a very short glimpse, asked Blanchard to turn sideways so [I] could see too. Saw them carrying pieces of metal. They had one piece that was eighteen by twenty-four inches, brushed stainless steel in color.
Sargeant Robert Smith said:
Afterwards we got to talking a little bit more about it and he said he’d been out there helping clean this up. He didn’t think taking a little piece like that would matter. It was just a little piece of metal or foil or whatever it was. Just small enough to be slipped into a pocket. I think he just picked it up for a souvenir. It was foil-like, but it was stiffer than foil that we have now. In fact, being a sheet metal man, it kind of intrigued me, being that you could crumple it and it would flatten back out again without any wrinkles showing up in it.
June Crain, who worked at Wright-Pattern AFB between 1952-53, and the lady who was permitted to play with a sample of the original Roswell foil, stated:
"Cut it. Trying cutting it. ...I got my scissors out and I snipped at it., and you know there was no way I could even cut that piece of metal. And it was as light as a feather....I ve never seen [anything like it since]. I always look at things, metal things and I still have that curiosity, because it still bothers me and I have yet to see anything that would have those properties and looks like that. And so light! Sort of a curve. ...it was practically indestructible. I even took the edge of the scissors and laid it on ... like this, and I whacked it like this, and I couldn t even make a dent in it. Just nothing. Cause he said tear it up, so I tried every thing I could to tear it up, and I couldn t tear it up. I couldn t make a dent in it; I couldn t make a mark on it."
Pappy Henderson said:
"I gave it a good, thorough looking-at and decided it was an alloy we are not familiar with. Gray, lustrous metal resembling aluminum, lighter in weight and much stiffer. [We couldn't] bend it. Edges sharp and jagged."
There are plenty more examples of quotes from original military witnesses who support this idea of a metal in the foil.
Combine this with the testing done by military personnel at the Roswell Army Air Field using a blow torch and this “metal” view must be seen as the most likely substance making up the foil. No known plastic, even by today's standards, can withstand the high-temperatures of a blow-torch.
On the basis of probability, we can be fairly certain the foil is a metal. And to show the shape-memory effect, it would have to be an alloy. In other words, two or more metal elements must compose it.
What happened afterwards?
Apart from rumours of two U.S. presidents being involved in some way with the Roswell incident (either to view or decide the fate of the debris and victims and whether the public would be told about the discovery), nothing more was heard.
Then in 1979, two dedicated U.S. investigators conducted interviews with witnesses. From those investigations came a different story from the official USAF explanation, including remarkable claims of a tough dark-grey metallic foil possessing unusual shape-memory abilities.
The Roswell foil - the Achilles heel of the USAF explanation
Then SUNRISE focused on the dark-grey foil in the early 1990s and it is here where new evidence has been uncovered that casts serious doubt over the official "aluminium" and "weather balloon" explanation as provided by the USAF.
More interestingly, why is the USAF so afraid to openly use NiTi in its own fighter jets, assuming it could manufacture it easily in vast quantities in 1947? If we are to accept the Roswell object was a military experiment, there should be no trouble for the USAF to manufacture the alloy and use it extensively in modern-day fighter jets. Yet remarkably, the only American aircraft to show a distinctly dark-greyish appearance are some super-secret spy planes.
Even if we could assume the development of an NiTi-like alloy or considerably tough properties was a natural course of technological development for the military, why continue the charade of maintaining secrecy over the materials used in its so-called military experiment? Why is the public not privy to such routine and already well-known knowledge and technology that scientists have studied since 1958?
The only way this can be explained is to complement this book with a read of Can UFOs Advance Science: Making the Case for a New Electromagnetic Technology. Even without this book,. Roswell Revealed: The New Scientific Breakthrough into the Controversial UFO Crash of 1947 has already provided intriguing details of the type of object we might be dealing with.
About this edition
The book that first began this research work into the link between NiTi, the Roswell foil and Wright-Patterson AFB has now been revised and expanded. It contains startling new information that will get people to seriously question the USAF position on the matter. Is the USAF telling the truth about what it found in New Mexico in early July 1947? Why is the USAF continuing to maintain secrecy over the crash? And what was it that really crashed all those many years ago?
This latest book has been the closest anyone has ever got to understanding what it is the USAF has kept for so long, short of a full confession from the military.
An important notice
To purchase NiTi (either as a sheet form, or as a wire, spring, or some other shape), get it from reputable NiTi manufacturers. Kelloggs Research Labs is one place that makes reasonable NiTi. But make sure it is pure and in the superelastic room temperature phase. Many non-reputable manufacturers will sell impure NiTi making it impossible to test the shape-memory response.
In the United States, the consumer version of NiTi sold online (4) will be limited to 99.5 per cent purity (assuming the alloy is made of NiTi and not anodized on the surface to a dark-grey appearance using another alloy). Such a purity level is not good enough to see a shape-memory effect. Furthermore, the manufacturers/sellers will often have it anodized or put an oxide on the surface to hide the true colour of NiTi (it should look like "dirty stainless steel" or dark grey but still reflect some light, and reveal the unmistakable metal appearance). Thus the sample will come to you as very dark grey (almost black) and with no obvious way of determining it is a metal (you could mistaken it for a plastic unless you examine it very closely). These less reputable manufacturers will advertise the samples they sell (at a high price) as "shape-memory" to entice people to buy them, but they are not. Yes, NiTi is a shape-memory alloy, but only if the purity is a minimum of 99.995 per cent. Otherwise, you are only getting an over-priced and highly impure NiTi sample that will never show the shape-memory effect. Any seller who makes the claim these impure NiTi alloys is a shape-memory alloy at 99.5 per cent purity are classified under the Trade Practices Act as false advertising, and you should immediately seek a refund if you have purchased a product of this poor quality.
When seeking a sample of NiTi, make sure you request the highest purity possible, exceeding 99.995 per cent. Also, ask for an alloy whose Ni and Ti composition ratio (near to 50 per cent) is adjusted to alloy for room temperature shape-memory activation. The greater the purity, the more sharply defined is the transition temperature from cool deformable phase to the warm shape-memory phase. It should take only a degree or two to make the transition. Thus a quality piece of NiTi designed to transition to its original shape at room temperature should be easily cooled in a fridge or freezer to show its pliable nature in the pure state. When heated or passing an electrical current through the alloy, it will resume its shape with great speed and ease.
Furthermore, over time, the alloy will harden significantly in both the cool and hot state and "learn" to get into two shapes in these states. To re-soften and memorise new shapes in the two states, heat the alloy to 400°C for 10 minutes. The atoms will space apart a little more to make the alloy softer to bend. If you want this hardness to be maintained and still allow reasonable flexibility, the alloy must have an ultrathin dimension in the order of 0.01 to 0.03mm, similar to aluminium cooking foil.
For a reputable U.S. company with the equipment to manufacture this level of purity in nitinol and of the superelastic form at room temperature, try Johnson Matthey Medical Components. An example of the cost to purchase a quality superelastic NiTi sheet is available here. Unfortunately this manufacturer and everyone else cannot produce ultrathin nitinol sheets. The technology is not available as of February 2021. One manufacturer has indicated to SUNRISE that it will achieve this ultrathin sheet dimension later in 2021 after performing considerable R&D work. Until then, not even Chinese nitinol manufacturers can achieve a thickness of less than 0.1mm for a sheet of pure nitinol.
Finally, request a sample to be made in a tracing paper thin form of 10cm x 10cm and a shape-memory temperature activation of 10°C in the superelastic composition range (between 50.6 and 51.0 atomic% nickel) to get the best effect and the closest to how the original Roswell foil appeared to the witnesses.