1. Why is Voyager 1 travelling at 17 km/s?
This is the question posed by a reader at Quora. One can answer this from a purely practical here-and-now moment based on known technologies and concepts as a NASA engineer has responded (see below), or we can take on a broader electromagnetic view.
The Traditional View
Here is the response from Robert Frost of NASA:
The Electromagnetic View
Actually if one thinks about this question further, it is asking us why are we limited to 17km/s? In other words, why can’t we travel faster?
Well, one of the things that some scientists and the USAF don’t tell you is that there are alternatives ways of accelerating an object of mass to a much higher speed. Even fewer of them will admit that there is a way to allow people to participate in the flight and reach the stars right now.
The biggest stumbling block in making this happen is the fuel. In particular, our choice of a fuel to burn and extract energy needed to propel an object. Basically scientists feel restricted to those fuels that have mass, such as hydrogen and oxygen. And this fuel has to be carried with the object in order to benefit from a constant supply of fuel to burn and use to push the object. Furthermore, there is only so much fuel we can carry on the journey. Too much fuel, and the mass increases to the point where it requires too much energy to move the payload and spacecraft as well as the fuel itself. And that means a lot of fuel has to be spent. So, just to leave the Earth against the force of gravity, a huge amount of fuel has to be expended just to get into space. Once you are there, it is a lot easier (hence the reason why NASA is looking at plans to establish a settlement in the Moon and build rockets there so the journey to Mars can be quicker and/or require a lot less fuel).
However, there is a way to solve all these problems. And it comes down to our knowledge of electromagnetism and our willingness to find out in order to see the alternative solution.
Indeed, there is a way in electromagnetism for us not to carry the fuel. In fact, the fuel is, technically speaking, already available in space. Space is not try vacuum. It contains energy. All we need to do is concentrate the energy and use it to achieve propulsion. In addition, the energy in space can be bent by a strong enough gravitational field to permit "recycling of energy". Combined this with a voltage multiplier device and we can utilise the energy to generate an oscillating voltage/charge for emitting radiation (i.e., the fuel/energy source and by-product) as a means of recoiling an object and so make it accelerate. But why radiation? It is because the acceleration performed by this radiation is said to be so much more dramatic according to the mathematics behind it. For a start, scientists know radiation moves solid matter. That is a given. No one can deny this observation. But can we use radiation to accelerate faster than our beloved Voyager spacecraft?
We already know that Cosmos 1 (if we had not lost its signal on commencement of its maiden voyage to Alpha Centauri) with its solar sails can reach the nearest star after our Sun in roughly 200 years thanks to its continuous acceleration from the solar wind until it eventually dies down beyond our solar system. Its low mass to speed ratio allows it to travel much faster than 17km/s and can reach its destination quicker. And that is done with sunlight.
However, if you generate the radiation yourself and emit it, then apart from the fact that you are not tethered to the Sun to supply the energy, but the object can recoil in the opposite direction just like the exhaust by-products emitted at the back end of a rocket.
But here is the catch: scientists believe the force from radiation is too weak to move anything of substance and size, such as a person, to any reasonable speed.
A quick review of electromagnetic propulsion from the traditional university physics textbook may suggest this electromagnetic force is weak. But this is for the uncharged case. In other words, the object that emits the radiation is not electrically charged.
What is rarely spoken about and least understood by the scientific community is that the force of the radiation changes dramatically in the charged case. As the Abraham-Lorentz formula tells us from classical electrodynamics, a charged object emitting radiation in one direction from its "charged" surface will be accelerated in a much more dramatic way. It has to do with the extra electrons that the radiation can push against and amplify the radiation force. But there is something else going on. But giving an explanation of what this is, the solution to the formula reveals an "exponential" acceleration of the charge. In other words, there is a way to achieve dramatic acceleration.
So the final question is, what kind of fuel or energy should we be using?
Well, guess what? We have just given a clue. Space is filled with electromagnetic energy. Wave a metal rod in space and it generates electricity at opposite ends of the metal rod. Or if you feel like sticking to traditional fuel systems, then use it to generate a high voltage. We have petrol-driven electric generators, and all it does is extract the energy from the surroundings to help separate the charges. Combine this with a voltage multiplier device (which means a higher voltage for a stronger recoiling force) and to oscillate the voltage using a fast switching mechanism, this oscillating charge/voltage can be put on the exterior metal hull of a spacecraft. Then we have radiation emitting into space from its surface. Now, to make the object move, change the shape to have greater metal curvature at one end compared to the opposite end, and make sure it lines up precisely with the center of gravity (we want it to move in a straight line and with no rotational movements, right?). Higher curvature means higher charge density. And a high charge density means the energy density of the emitted radiation is high too, and with it a stronger radiation force to recoil the charged object. Keep maintaining this emission and the charged object will follow the exponential solution of the Abraham-Lorentz formula.
But that is not all. There is also another reality lurking in there that we could benefit, if we are smart enough.
We know radiation comes with a gravitational field of its own. A fact noted by Albert Einstein and encapsulated into his unified field equations of the Unified Field Theory. All oscillating electromagnetic fields generate a gravitational field. So as the charge accelerates, the energy density of the emitted radiation increases too. And with it the gravitational field of the radiation gets stronger. As it increases, it can bend the emitted radiation. Reach a critical density and the radiation can be recycled to hit again and again the charged surface without any further input of energy. Thus the object accelerates faster and more dramatically.
Now imagine a lightweight charged object accelerating exponentially in accordance with this formula of classical electrodynamics to Alpha Centauri. How long do you think it is going to take to get there? 200 years? You're dreaming. 10 years? Not really
If you need a bit of inspiration, it is highly recommended that you read those UFO reports of symmetrical glowing flying objects again. Remember the "glow"? That is what happens when you heat a thin metal skin with the oscillating charge. It is precisely how an electric light bulb works. And why symmetrical? Well, to protect whatever is inside using the Faraday-cage effect. But is the shape really perfectly symmetrical? Perhaps, if it is to stop the objects from accelerating. But what if it actually isn't perfectly symmetrical? A little extra curvature in the right position (use a shape-memory alloy with enough flexibility to bend and allow it to return to its original shape) to counteract and provide a stronger recoiling force compared to whatever is being emitted and exerting a force on the opposite end. For all intensive purposes, you would be essentially moving in one direction.
Not we start to enter into some interesting territory.
Then we have those reports of UFO occupants emerging from the objects. Huh? Haven't those apparently living occupants died from the long journey just to get here? Surely it is too far and there is not enough energy in the universe to move a solid object fast enough to reach us. Apparently not. These observations strongly suggests that the massive acceleration achieved from this radiation propulsion concept from a charged surface and its very lightweight design (including the remarkably thin and short occupants —we wonder why?) are allowing full use of Einstein's apparent length contraction at high speeds to permit living occupants to reach us while ensuring there is no unnecessary additional mass to bog things down. I doubt it would take more than a week to get to us. Maybe even a couple of hours from the perspective of the occupants (not so for those who stay behind on an Earth-like planet, which will take about 8.6 years for the nearest star to our Sun to see the occupants return).
While traditional scientists, including many working at NASA, are still thinking in a very traditional sense with the view that solid fuels is the only way to accelerate solid mass, more creative physicists with strong electromagnetic knowledge knows that we already have the massless fuel or energy by way of radiation capable of moving "charged" solid objects and can do it faster than we think. Even more amazing, we know that this energy already exists all around us. So why do we need to carry the fuel with us? It is there for the taking, so use it.
From an electromagnetic perspective, there is absolutely no need to carry this fuel we call radiation. More interestingly, there is a way to travel much faster than the piddling 17km/s we see with Voyager. Already Cosmos 1 would have proven it if it weren’t for some silly technical issue, either in its communication systems or whatever it was that led to its sudden disappearance or loss (it is almost like someone does not want to see this form of propulsion succeed and so reveal how potentially more powerful this approach to space travel can be). It is all a question of breaking the traditional "solid fuel" mold that scientists are still carrying with them into the 21st century and start to explore electromagnetism more closely for the answer.
It is actually not rocket science; rather, it is electromagnetic propulsion science.
In conclusion, if you want to see those science fiction films of spacecraft reaching the stars become a reality, you will have to think about electromagnetism to see how possible, and soon probable, all this is going to be.
2. Do UFOs exist?
Scientifically speaking, yes they do. It would be extremely unwise, and certainly unscientific, to claim no UFOs exist. There have to be flying objects in the sky that are not immediately and readily identifiable as natural or man-made objects. Of course, this does not mean that every UFO people find in the sky represents an alien spacecraft. What it does mean is that a small percentage of the UFOs has the potential to represent something new to science. And if that is the case, it is in the interest of the scientific community to find out what it is.
Now, according to witnesses of genuine UFO cases, research has identified very clear and interesting observations of electromagnetic side-effects associated with a number of these flying objects. This is particularly true for those cases where a distinctive symmetrical shape for the flying object together with interesting and unmistakable "artificial" features, such as doors, portholes, fuselages, antennas and so on, have been observed. Even the occupants themselves that emerge out of these objects are not entirely human (apart from the humanoid shape of the body). When faced with such cases, scientific research and investigations should definitely be carried out, and done so without bias and with no preconceived ideas of what UFOs could or should be by anyone.
That is the proper way to be doing science with UFOs.
Based on your research, can you safely say that we are being visited by aliens?
After carrying out this research, the prospects of finding alien life are extremely good. If we were to give a number between 0 (impossible) to 100 (certainty), we are about 95 per cent certain we are dealing with an alien presence in the UFOs mainly because we have identified the electromagnetic concept and technology and know how it is possible for UFO occupants to reach our planet. Furthermore, the observations have gone well before the 20th century. Of course, to give absolute certainty in this matter, it is best to be conservative and say that once we build the electromagnetic flying object lying at the heart of genuine UFO reports (and hence prove the radiation reaction force is a legitimate and real concept that we can apply today), we will know the answer beyond a shadow of a doubt.
3. Could UFOs be a secret military experiment?
There is no doubt that some skeptics will argue that the technology must be a military experiment, probably from the USAF as it was interested in the radiation reaction force between 1959 and 1960 and is aware of the electromagnetic effects of UFOs since 1947. As another case in point, it is reasonable to consider the Cash-Landrum UFO case in December 1980 as evidence of this claim. In this interesting event, a military test of a UFO-like flying object in the state of Texas took place leaving behind important radiation effects on three witnesses. Following this case, a NASA engineer had to conclude that UFOs had to be some form of a solid and real flying object for the radiation to have been received in the quantities revealed by the witnesses. Clearly something flew in the presence of the witnesses even if the USAF will try all it can to deny any involvement in the testing.
However, any claim of military involvement as the only explanation for those electromagnetic UFOs cannot be justified when we realise that such electromagnetic effects and the appearance of symmetrical flying objects have been observed well before this testing and even prior to the USAF coming into existence. As further support, we see that the USAF pilots do not appear as unusual-looking thin and mostly short individuals with large heads and eyes. And if the USAF are working on such a technology and wants to keep it secret, it consistently fails to do so with each important and genuine UFO case that gets reported. You would think by now that the USAF would concede and be honest and just say this is the new technology it has been working on for some time, and start displaying it openly as with any other formerly secret aircraft ever made by the military organisation. The fact that the military does not want to do this means we are dealing with another entity. It is time humanity is prepared for this revelation.
4. Have one of these electromagnetic objects visited us in Biblical times?
There are stories in the Bible of a mysterious entity called God coming down from the skies, principally in a large cloud, to influence people on the ground. Slightly more details of the flying object get revealed in the story of Moses where a glowing cloud moving in the sky was helping Moses and his people to leave Egypt and to stop the Egyptian soldiers from intercepting the group (see Evolution of Life section under the Recent period link for more details). In other stories, certain wise old men seem to have given more details about what is hidden once the cloud disperses to reveal the flying object.
In modern UFO cases, we know some UFOs can come masquerading as a cloud and suddenly make themselves known to the witnesses (take, for instance, the famous UFO case in Finland involving two skiers nearly the town of Imjarvi on 7 January 1970). Together with their glowing metal surfaces looking like a giant electric light bulb, it is reasonable to imagine these objects as being able to make clouds surrounding the objects look like they are glowing. The principle of making clouds is not difficult. All it requires is the emission of energy from the surface of the object to push away the air and cause a reduction in air pressure. Add humidity to the mix and it is not magical to create clouds and make it surround the object. Well, let us put it this way: it is not an advanced alien thing to make clouds. When it comes to the electromagnetic concept behind UFOs, there is a certain energy that can make this work.
Whilst the Moses story in the Bible and other stories are not quite detailed enough to conclude that we are definitely dealing with an electromagnetic technology, it is worth keeping a note on these sorts of observations.
5. Why haven't these symmetrical UFOs evolved since ancient times to become more advanced to the point of discovering a non-electromagnetic technology that is more powerful and could make "faster than light" journeys as we see in Star Wars?
Good question. One should expect a continuum of advanced alien civilisations in coming up with original and different solutions, not just in the design of the UFOs, but also right down to the type of propulsion system used. You might consider us at the (really) lower end of the spectrum with our preference for fossil fuel based flying technology with wings to move through the air and provide lift and rockets/jet engines to provide some speed. What we see in the UFO reports represents another higher level of understanding of how to fly based on some electromagnetic principle. Fortunately we know this to be electromagnetic in nature and uses radiation to propel the objects. So why not the most advanced alien civilisations discovering something more exotic? Perhaps. However, virtually all modern-day and genuine UFOs reported by witnesses tend to be symmetrical in shape for at least the main body. It means that whatever is being emitted on the outside must not penetrate the metal body in order to protect pilots and instruments. There are some superficial differences, with some coming with protrusions around specific positions around the base of the circular object, and others relying on specific geometric shapes (e.g., an equilateral triangle) that are symmetrical along certain axes. Yet despite the passage of time and the potential for different groups being responsible for flying these objects to improve on the designs and find alternative new and more advanced technologies and concepts that are not reliant on electromagnetism, it seems the essential concept behind the electromagnetic technology and the natural electromagnetic side-effects this technology creates, such as cloud formation and glowing effects, does not seem to change even after thousands of years. Only the outer appearance of the objects may vary. But if you look more closely, there is a basic geometric and symmetrical design and an electromagnetic concept being applied behind it, and a method of propelling itself using a form of asymmetric shape or extra metal protrusions moving to one side. There is something about this electromagnetic concept that is considered the best there is in science and anywhere in the universe for the purposes of achieving long distance travelling between the stars. It seems this electromagnetic concept has the required phenomenal acceleration needed for interstellar travel. And whoever or whatever is flying the UFOs has found a way to control the inertial forces during the acceleration to allow for occupants to participate in the flight.
There is something about the electromagnetic technology at the fundamental level associated with these more unusual UFO reports that does not change, and appears to be the only viable solution available for whoever are flying these objects.
Now, after looking at the physics of UFO technology, we can see why. There is only one area we can find in all of physics to show a remarkable acceleration, principally "exponential". We see this in electromagnetism, more specifically the radiation reaction force. Any other way in physics would require brute force and to carry a lot of mass by way of fuel to even vaguely approach the speed of light. The electromagnetic concept, however, focuses on a recycling of electromagnetic energy, not to mention ways to extract the energy from the surroundings as the object moves through space. This is the more intelligent approach to solving the traditional brute force method.
But could there by a more advanced non-electromagnetic technology that we just don't know about?
If there is another technology to improve on this aspect, it would have to be a means of reducing the energy density of space to zero to create what scientists call worm holes. These are mathematically predicted and hypothetical regions of perfect vacuum (even the radiation drops to zero). In such a region, anything can be accelerated to speeds exceeding the speed of light. In fact, light and all solid matter can be accelerated to infinite speeds. Then we would have a situation as we see in those science fiction films such as Star Wars where flying objects can reach opposite ends of a galaxy very fast. Theoretically it should be instantaneous. However, nothing is ever "perfect" with technology. And with people inside to survive the acceleration, this might be closer to a matter of hours. Even so, creating a perfect vacuum is an impossibility. No amount of energy in the universe or the most powerful super-advanced "alien" technology can ever push away this energy of space to create a perfect vacuum even for a fleeting moment. Not even an infinitesimal time frame. The reason why is because space itself (with its energy, mostyle by way of radiation) will exert an equally strong counteracting force to push itself back in and ensure the region is filled with energy at all times. The force will be so strong that an infinite and instantaneous force will be applied to a perfect vacuum if a technology had enough energy to make a region a perfect vacuum, thereby rendering the technology useless. As a consequence of this, the only means possible to reach the stars is to travel close to the speed of light, and to use the electromagnetic concept of radiation recycling to avoid carrying excess mass by way of fuel and all the rest, so it can be possible to reach the high speeds quickly and easily.
Evidence for this claim can be observed in the UFO occupants. Practically all occupants that have been observed are invariably thin and mostly quite small. Why should this be the case? Why not have what we see in Stars Wars with obese creatures like Jabba the Hutt? A perfect vacuum would allow for it. Indeed, it will allow for the acceleration of objects of any mass (and any shape, so no point in developing just symmetrical metal bodies all the time). Yet, for some reason, not so in UFO reports. How interesting. The importance of a symmetrical metallic design for the central body is essential. And so too is keeping the occupants lightweight. When we add the observations made by witnesses of the Roswell UFO crash of the incredibly lightweight nature of the materials found, as well as being extremely strong and virtually unburnable, it now makes perfect sense to make everything as lightweight as possible, including the occupants. The reason for this starts to become obvious. It is because the UFOs cannot exceed the speed light (based on an observer looking at the flying object from a stationary position on the Earth). UFOs must observe the laws of physics. Therefore, UFOs can only approach the speed of light. And it does so to such a level that it permits those occupants to participate in the flight. In other words, the technology is fast enough for people to reach the stars.
6. What do we need to do to see this concept in reality?
The technology and concept are known. We even have a patented invention to support the concept (except the inventor has never realised it). Therefore, all we need to do is conduct a simple experiment to emit radiation from a charged object in one direction and observe the "exponential" acceleration taking place. That is where we are at.
But to actually realise the potential and expected reality of this new technology, we have to change our view on how radiation moves solid matter.
Currently physicists think that radiation is too weak to move a solid object of any reasonable size to carry people and instruments. The argument being that radiation is using its mass-like property (or gravitational field according to Einstein's Unified Field Theory) to move only the mass of an object. By mass, we mean that separate component from the electric charge that scientists consider is "uncharged" and feels "solid" in the hand. If we were to accept this view, then the only way to get radiation to move an object of reasonable size is to accelerate it first to a phenomenal level. Acceleration can involve rotations, as well as linear acceleration approaching relativistic speeds. Then as the mass increases for the object, radiation can have more to "grip onto" and push the object away more effectively. But first you must accelerate the object. And the more massive the object is, the harder it becomes to accelerate it.
Clearly we have to make the object as lightweight as possible.
But do you need to accelerate the mass for radiation to have the sufficient force to move it (and potentially show this "exponential" acceleration)?
Not according to Einstein's Unified Field Theory. A careful look at this theory and the way it looks at solid matter has revealed a new picture not considered by the scientific community until now. Specifically, it is possible the gravitational field may not actually exist. And the concept of mass being ":uncharged" may be incorrect. The new scientific view now being brought forth for the 21st century is that all matter is constantly "charged". And the thing that helps us to move solid matter is the electromagnetic field. There are no other forces of nature to consider. No uncharged mass, and no gravitational fields. When we look closely at the properties of the oscillating electromagnetic field, or radiation, it behaves in every way like it is ordinary matter. It has an inherent mass-like property that allows radiation to move solid matter. The question is how do we explain it? For the traditional 20th century physicist, it was simply to maintain Sir Isaac Newton's concept of a gravitational field or mass and somehow include this into the radiation through the famous Einstein equation linking energy and mass and assume the radiation is only moving the uncharged component of mass. In the 21st century, this view will change. By pushing the concept in the Unified Field Theory to its logical conclusion, we can now consider the possibility that there is no gravitational field. It never existed. It is only the radiation that is moving solid matter. And it does so not through the mass of the object, but only with the charge. It is charge that controls the strength of the radiation force on solid matter. And that means, you can amplify the force by raising the charge of solid matter and the frequency of the radiation (which has the effect of grabbing more of the charges and moving it more effectively).
There is no such thing as a truly "uncharged" object. Not even the neutron is uncharged (which is one of the implications of Einstein's Unified Field Theory). Sure, the neutron has been experimentally measured to have no charge. But how do you know for sure there is no change at every instant in time? A neutron just so happens to be composed of an electron and a proton when it is broken apart inside a particle accelerator. How convenient. But what evidence is there to suggest that the electron and proton have merged together inside a neutron to create a unique particle? The answer is none. There is every possibility that a neutron still has the electron and proton lurking inside and doing something else, which according to the Unified Field Theory may be merely spinning around each other. And if this is the case, it can fool physicists into thinking it is uncharged at all times. So while we know a neutron is composed of these two fundamental charged particles of an electron and proton, we have to consider the possibility that the neutron itself is constantly charged and reversing its polarity very quickly as the electron and proton move around each other.
So what does all this mean for UFO technology? It simply means that there is a way to amplify the radiation force on solid matter. You first increase the amount of charge on the surface of a metal. Then you accelerate the charge moving on and off the external metal surface for holding the charge temporarily at a rapid pace (and this sets the frequency of the emitted radiation). There is no initial acceleration needed for the mass to increase sufficiently in order for the radiation to move enough of this mass to high speeds. It can happen simply by generating charge in the rest position and oscillating it. Then the energy density of the radiation emitted by the charges combine to help increase its reaction force on solid matter as soon as the radiation emerges from the charged surface and moves away into space. Just accelerate the charges, and the radiation has more to "grip" onto by way of charges to make the object recoil. Add to this the frequency of the radiation as another means of raising the energy density to affect more charges recoiling in the opposite direction to the motion of the radiation, and you will have a full understanding of how UFOs work.
And that is why 20th century physicists have never been able to solve the UFO mystery. They have essentially maintained an outdated scientific picture on how radiation moves solid matter, and this is what is holding them back from seeing what is possible and achievable in the real world.