1. Why is Voyager 1 travelling at 17 km/s?
This is a question raised on Quora. There are two ways to approach this. You can either look at this in terms of a practical here-and-now approach based on known present-day technologies being used as one NASA engineer has responded (see below), or we can take on a more broader view.
The Traditional View
Here is the response from Robert Frost of NASA:
The Broader View
Actually if one thinks about this question further, it is asking us why are we limited to 17km/s? In other words, why can’t we travel faster?
Well, one of the things that some scientists and the USAF don’t tell you is that there are alternatives ways of accelerating an object of mass to a much higher speed. Even fewer of them will admit that there is a way to allow people to participate in the flight and reach the stars right now.
The biggest stumbling block in making this interstellar travel a reality is the fuel. In particular, our choice of a fuel to burn and extract energy needed to propel an object. Basically scientists feel restricted to those fuels that have mass, such as hydrogen and oxygen. And this fuel has to be carried with the object in order to benefit from a constant supply of fuel to burn and use to push the object. Furthermore, there is only so much fuel we can carry on the journey. Too much fuel, and the mass increases to the point where it requires too much energy to move the payload, the spacecraft, and the fuel itself. And that means a lot of fuel has to be spent. So, just to leave the Earth against the force of gravity, a huge amount of fuel has to be expended just to get into space. Once you are there, it gets a lot easier (hence the reason why NASA is looking at plans to establish a settlement on the Moon and build rockets there so the journey to Mars can be quicker and/or require a lot less fuel).
However, there is a way to solve all these problems if we broaden our thinking and consider new ideas. And it will come down to our knowledge of electromagnetism and our willingness to find out in order to see the alternative solution. In particular, is it necessary to carry all the energy we need with us? And does that energy have to be in the form of solid mass?
For example, in electromagnetism, fuel does not have to be carried in the form of solid mass. Fuel is, technically speaking, already available in space. Scientists call this electromagnetic energy. Furthermore, we can temporarily store a small amount of this energy in space inside a material for use in a propulsion system and have it topped up as a spacecraft is accelerating.
We should remember that space is not a true vacuum. It contains energy. Much of it is electromagnetic by way of radiation. All we need to do is concentrate this energy (mainly through acceleration of a mass, charged or otherwise), extract some of this concentrated energy (using, say, a metal antenna cutting through this energy), store some of the energy (any battery will do, but for high amounts of electrical energy to be kept and made available to do work, a large superconducting ring is ideal), and use some of the energy to achieve propulsion. In addition, the energy in space can be bent by a strong enough gravitational field to permit "recycling of energy". A concept that originates from Einstein's Unified Field Theory his final scientific legacy to humankind. Combined this with a voltage multiplier device and we can utilise the energy to generate an oscillating voltage/charge for emitting radiation (i.e., the fuel/energy source and by-product) as a means of recoiling an object and so make it accelerate. But why radiation? It is because the acceleration performed by this radiation on charged matter is said to be so much more dramatic according to the mathematics known as the Abraham-Lorentz formula.
Actually, scientists already know radiation moves solid matter. The question is, can we use radiation to accelerate faster than our beloved Voyager spacecraft?
We already know that Cosmos 1 with its solar sails can reach the nearest star after our Sun in roughly 200 years thanks to its continuous acceleration from the solar wind until it eventually dies down beyond our solar system. If we had not lost its signal on commencement of its maiden voyage to Alpha Centauri, its low mass to speed ratio would have allowed it to travel much faster than 17km/s and reach its destination in a fraction of the time it would take for Voyager to cover the same distance. Remember, this is done and achievable entirely with sunlight. No nuclear energy or hydrogen fuel. Just pure sunlight energy.
However, if you generate the radiation yourself and emit it, then apart from the fact that you are not tethered to the Sun to supply the energy, but the object can recoil in the opposite direction just like the exhaust by-products emitted at the back end of a rocket.
But here is the catch: scientists believe the force from radiation is too weak to move anything of substance and size, such as a person, to any reasonable speed.
A quick review of electromagnetic propulsion from the traditional university physics textbook may suggest this electromagnetic force is weak. But this is for the uncharged case. In other words, the object that emits the radiation is not electrically charged. Sure, the solid mass has some charges. But what scientists are not yet certain about is whether the radiation is moving these charges, or just the mass of those charges? The assumption has been that the gravitational component of radiation, or the mass component of radiation in a classical Newtonian sense, is the part that is moving other mass and this is considered too weak to move an object of reasonable mass, especially one that carries people and instruments inside.
But what if we told you this is wrong? What if the radiation is moving only the charges and nothing else? How would this fair in the case of extra charges being applied to the surface of a solid mass, say a metal, and finding out what happens when the radiation interacts with the charges? Would the force to recoil the object be greater with this extra charge than in the so-called "uncharged" case?
That is the real issue here, and the kind of broader thinking that is required by scientists and engineers to be truly certain we have not overlooked something new and important.
What is rarely spoken about and least understood by the scientific community is that the force of the radiation changes dramatically in the charged case. As the Abraham-Lorentz formula tells us from classical electrodynamics, a charged object emitting radiation in one direction from its "charged" surface will be accelerated in a much more dramatic way. In other words, it is exponential. Sure, there is some kind of recycling of the energy taking place due to the gravitational field of the radiation that can bend the radiation back on itself according to Einstein's Unified Field Theory. Also an accelerating charge is helping to concentrate and amplify the electromagnetic energy from the surroundings as a way to increase the recoiling force of the radiation emissions. But so too is the fact that there is extra charge on the surface of the object that is contributing to the extra recoiling force. Think of the extra electrons providing this additional charge as extra "grips" for the radiation to hang onto and push against. The more charges are present, the more the radiation can push against and this moves the crystalline structure of the metal in the opposite direction.
What we have here in the Abraham-Lorentz formula is a different solution compared to the "uncharged" case. Here the solution reveals an "exponential" acceleration of the charge with additional ways to amplify the recoiling force compared to the ":uncharged" case.
To appreciate what we mean by "exponential", think of the "uncharged" case as like a car and you press the accelerator. The car needs to expend a fixed amount of energy from the fuel to maintain a constant acceleration, and with time the velocity gets faster and faster. In the "charged" case, we have a totally different kettle of fish to handle here. We are talking about applying the accelerator just a tiny bit to start the acceleration, and we let go of the accelerator almost immediately. Then the charge, emitted radiation, the energy surrounding the charged object, and the accelerating motion of the charge, feeds on itself to help create a runaway acceleration effect. So long as you allow the radiation to be emitted in one direction and with no frictional forces in the air (or brakes) to slow things down, the charged object accelerates at an increasing rate. That rate is described in the mathematics as exponential. This is definitely not a constant acceleration. We are talking about a non-linear form of acceleration. The inertial forces simply increase, and increase dramatically as the acceleration jumps over in a runaway effect. In other words, there is a way to achieve dramatic acceleration in a short period of time of commencing the acceleration. The kind of acceleration, that, if we can control inertial forces on the human body, can effectively carry people to the stars.
So the final question is, what kind of fuel or energy should we be using?
Radiation, of course. It technically has no mass, and space is filled with electromagnetic energy. So why do we need to carry all the fuel? Store some in the object to start things off. As soon as the object accelerates, use ingenious engineering solutions to tap onto the energy of space and use it to top up the energy storage system. Wave a metal rod in space and it generates electricity at opposite ends of the metal rod, right? Well, that is energy in space ready for the taking. If you don't feel confident with the system and like to stick to traditional fuel systems, then that is fine too. Just use it to generate a high voltage. We have petrol-driven electric generators, and all it does is extract the energy from the surroundings to help separate the charges. Combine this with a voltage multiplier device (which means a higher voltage for a stronger recoiling force) and to oscillate the voltage using a fast switching mechanism, this oscillating charge/voltage can be put on the exterior metal hull of a spacecraft. Then we have radiation emitting into space from its surface. However, to make the object move, you must change the shape to have a greater metal curvature at one end compared to the opposite end, and make sure it lines up precisely with the center of gravity (we want it to move in a straight line and with no rotational movements, right?). Higher curvature means higher charge density. And a high charge density means the energy density of the emitted radiation is high too, and with it a stronger radiation force to recoil the charged object. In the presence of charges in the metal, it means the radiation can exert a stronger recoiling force on the charges to make the object accelerate in the opposite direction. Keep maintaining this emission and asymmetric shape and the charged object will follow the exponential solution of the Abraham-Lorentz formula.
Now imagine a lightweight charged object accelerating exponentially in accordance with this formula of classical electrodynamics to Alpha Centauri. How long do you think it is going to take to get there? 200 years? You're dreaming. Ten years? Not really
If you need a bit of inspiration, it is highly recommended that you read those UFO reports of symmetrical glowing flying objects again. Remember the "glow"? That is what happens when you heat a thin metal skin with the oscillating charge. It glows like an electric light bulb. And why symmetrical? Well, to protect whatever is inside using the Faraday-cage effect. But is the shape really perfectly symmetrical? Perhaps, if it is to stop the objects from accelerating and to reduce inertial forces internally during the acceleration. But what if it actually isn't perfectly symmetrical, especially for the outer hull instead of an internal metal shell or cabin? A little extra curvature in the right position externally (use a shape-memory alloy with enough flexibility to bend and allow it to return to its original shape) to counteract and provide a stronger recoiling force compared to whatever is being emitted and exerting a force on the opposite end. For all intensive purposes, you would be essentially moving in one direction.
Not we are starting to enter into some interesting territory.
Then we have those reports of UFO occupants emerging from the objects. Huh? Haven't those occupants died from the long journey just to get here? Surely it is too far and there is not enough energy in the universe to move a solid object fast enough to reach us as many traditional 20th century scientists have said. Apparently not. These observations strongly suggest that the massive acceleration achieved from this radiation propulsion concept from a charged surface and its very lightweight design (including the consistent observations of remarkably thin and often short occupants) are allowing full use of Einstein's apparent length contraction according to Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity at high speeds to permit living occupants to reach us while ensuring there is no unnecessary additional mass to bog things down. It is highly unlikely it would take more than a week to get to us. Maybe even a couple of hours from the perspective of the occupants (not so for those who stay behind on an Earth-like planet, which will take a minimum of 8.6 years to reach the the nearest star to our Sun and back again).
While traditional scientists, including many working at NASA, are still thinking in a very traditional sense with the view that solid fuels are the only way to accelerate solid mass, more creative physicists with strong electromagnetic knowledge understand we have the massless fuel or energy known as radiation to contend with. If the formula is right and we experimentally confirm this prediction of "exponential" acceleration, then we are more than capable of moving "charged" solid objects to speeds exceeding 17 kilometres per second. Already Cosmos 1 would have proven it is possible to travel faster than 17km/s if it weren’t for some silly technical issue, either in its communication systems or whatever it was that led to its sudden disappearance or loss (it is almost as if someone did not want to see this form of propulsion succeed and so reveal how potentially more powerful this approach to space travel can be). It is all a question of breaking the traditional "solid fuel" mold that scientists have set for themselves and are carrying into the 21st century and, instead, start to explore electromagnetism more closely for the answer.
2. Do UFOs exist?
Scientifically speaking, yes they do. It would be unwise, and certainly unscientific, to claim no UFOs exist. There have to be flying objects in the sky that are not immediately and readily identifiable as natural or man-made objects. Of course, this does not mean that every UFO people find in the sky represents an alien spacecraft. What it does mean is that a small percentage of the UFOs has the potential to represent something new to science. And if that is the case, it is in the interest of the scientific community to find out what it is.
Now, according to witnesses of genuine UFO cases, research has identified some interesting electromagnetic side-effects associated with a number of these flying objects. This is particularly true for those cases where a distinctive symmetrical shape for the flying object together with interesting and unmistakable "artificial" features, such as doors, portholes, fuselages, antennas and so on, have been observed. Even the occupants themselves that emerge out of these objects are not entirely human (apart from the humanoid shape of the body). When faced with such cases, scientific research and investigations should definitely be carried out, and done so without bias and with no preconceived ideas of what UFOs could or should be by anyone.
There are UFOs worthy of scientific investigation and research.
Based on your research, can you safely say that we are being visited by aliens?
After carrying out this research, the prospects of finding alien life are now extremely good. If we were to give a number between 0 (impossible) to 100 (certainty), we are about 95 per cent certain we are dealing with an alien presence in the UFOs mainly because we have identified the electromagnetic concept and technology and know how it is possible for UFO occupants to reach our planet. Of course, to give absolute certainty in this matter, it is always best to be conservative and say that once we build the electromagnetic flying object lying at the heart of genuine UFO reports, we will know the answer beyond a shadow of a doubt.
3. Could UFOs be a secret military experiment?
Skeptics love to use the "military experiment" explanation to explain UFOs. This is perfectly fine if it fits the observations and there is clear evidence of military involvement. In terms of who is most likely to be involved in such an experiment, it would have to be the USAF. From history we see the USAF has been interested in the radiation reaction force between 1959 and 1960, is aware of the electromagnetic effects of UFOs since 1947, and has built and tested an electromagnetic vehicle with all the characteristics of a typical glowing UFO in a symmetrical design in Texas in late December 1980 (see the Cash-Landrum UFO case). An interesting UFO case in which a military test of a UFO-like flying object in the state of Texas took place leaving behind important radiation effects on three witnesses. Following this important case, a NASA engineer concluded that UFOs had to be some form of a solid and real flying object for the radiation to have been received in the quantities revealed by the witnesses. This is the best evidence yet for a real and solid flying object supporting the UFO observations. Clearly something flew in the presence of the witnesses even if the USAF will deny any involvement in the testing.
However, any claim of military involvement as the only explanation for all electromagnetic UFOs cannot be justified on the grounds that such electromagnetic effects and the appearance of symmetrical flying objects have been observed well before this testing and even prior to the USAF coming into existence. As further support for this view, we see that the USAF pilots do not appear as unusual-looking thin and mostly short individuals with large heads and eyes. And if the USAF are working on such a technology and wants to keep it secret, it consistently fails to keep it to itself with each important and genuine UFO case that gets reported. You would think by now that the USAF would have conceded and decided to be honest and just say this is the new technology it has been working on for some time, and start displaying it openly as with any other formerly secret aircraft ever made by the military organisation. The fact that the military does not want to do this means we are dealing with another entity. It cannot be military. Someone else is responsible for the UFOs. It is time humanity is prepared for this revelation.
4. Have one of these electromagnetic objects visited us in Biblical times?
There are stories in the Bible of a mysterious entity called God coming down from the skies, principally in a large cloud, to influence people on the ground. Slightly more details of the flying object get revealed in the story of Moses where a glowing cloud moving in the sky was helping Moses and his people to leave Egypt and to stop the Egyptian soldiers from intercepting the group (see Evolution of Life section under the Recent period link for more details). In other stories, certain wise old men seem to have given more details about what is hidden once the cloud disperses to reveal the flying object.
In modern UFO cases, we know some UFOs can come masquerading as a cloud and suddenly make themselves known to the witnesses (take, for instance, the famous UFO case in Finland involving two skiers nearly the town of Imjarvi on 7 January 1970). Together with their glowing metal surfaces looking like a giant electric light bulb, it is reasonable to imagine these objects as being able to make clouds surrounding the objects look like they are glowing. The principle of making clouds is not difficult. All it requires is the emission of energy from the surface of the object to push away the air and cause a reduction in air pressure. Add humidity to the mix and it is not magical to create clouds and make it surround the object. Well, let us put it this way: it is not an advanced alien thing to make clouds. When it comes to the electromagnetic concept behind UFOs, there is a way to make this work.
Thus, it is perfectly likely that the glowing cloud in an otherwise clear sky as observed by Moses and being able to re-trace its path and come down closer to the ground to keep the Egyptian army at bay could well be one of these electromagnetic UFOs in action.
Whilst the Moses story in the Bible and other stories are not quite detailed enough to conclude that we are definitely dealing with an electromagnetic technology, it is worth keeping a note on these sorts of observations.
5. Why haven't these symmetrical UFOs evolved since ancient times to become more advanced to the point of discovering a non-electromagnetic technology that is more powerful and could make "faster than light" journeys as we see in Star Wars?
Good question. One would think there is a continuum of advanced alien civilisations coming up with original and different solutions, not just in the design of the UFOs, but also right down to the type of propulsion system used. You might consider us at the (really) lower end of the spectrum with our preference for fossil fuel based flying technology with wings to move through the air and provide lift and rockets/jet engines to provide some speed. What we see in the UFO reports revealing electromagnetic side effects and glowing regions where radiation is likely to be emitted for propulsion represents another higher level of understanding of how to fly. Fortunately, we finally know what this electromagnetic concept is about and how it works. And best of all, scientists know about the concept for more than a century. So no mystery there. But why not the most advanced alien civilisations discovering something more exotic? The sort of thing we should see in Star Wars, right? Perhaps. However, virtually all modern-day and genuine UFOs reported by witnesses are universally symmetrical in shape for at least the main fuselage or body. It means that whatever is being emitted on the outside must not penetrate the metal body in order to protect pilots and instruments. There are some superficial differences, with some coming with protrusions around specific positions around the base of the circular object, and others relying on specific geometric shapes (e.g., an equilateral triangle) that are symmetrical along certain axes. Yet despite the passage of time and the potential for different groups being responsible for flying these objects to improve on the designs and find alternative new and more advanced technologies and concepts that are not reliant on electromagnetism, it seems the essential concept behind the electromagnetic technology and the natural electromagnetic side-effects this technology creates, such as cloud formation and glowing effects, does not seem to change even after thousands of years. Only the outer appearance of the objects may vary (a little). But if you look more closely, there is a basic geometric and symmetrical design (for the central body) and an electromagnetic concept being applied behind it, and a method of propelling itself using a form of asymmetric shape or extra metal protrusions moving to one side. There is something about this electromagnetic concept that is considered the best there is in science and anywhere in the universe for the purposes of achieving long distance travelling between the stars. It seems this electromagnetic concept has the required phenomenal acceleration needed for interstellar travel. And whoever or whatever is flying the UFOs has found a way to control the inertial forces during the acceleration to allow for occupants to participate in the flight.
There is something about the electromagnetic technology at the fundamental level that does not change, and appears to be the only viable solution available for whoever are flying these objects.
Yet some scientists will argue from a mathematical perspective that worm holes could exist and be applied by an advanced alien civilisation. And hence there could be more advanced non-electromagnetic technology that we just don't know about. Is this true?
It should be noted that a worm hole is a mathematically predicted region of reduced energy density of space. In fact, the energy is reduced to zero. Zero in the sense that no quantum fluctuations might exist. This is as zero as you can ever get. But because the energy we are talking about here is predominantly electromagnetic by way of radiation, it is the radiation that must reduce to zero. Here lies a big problem. In this real Universe, there is no such thing as a perfectly zero energy region. Creating a perfect mathematical region of zero energy is an impossibility. Sure, such a region can allow anything to be accelerated to speeds exceeding the speed of light and without feeling the inertial forces. In fact, light and all solid matter can be accelerated to infinite speeds. Then we would have a situation as we see in those science fiction films such as Star Wars where flying objects can reach opposite ends of a galaxy very fast and without the crushing inertial forces that would occur during acceleration and deceleration. Theoretically it should be instantaneous. However, nothing is ever "perfect" in the real Universe no matter how advanced our technology is. The Universe does not allow for a "perfect" region of zero energy to exist using any amount of energy or technology we can use to pump out this energy. Not even the most powerful super-advanced alien civilisation in the entire Universe with a technology can ever push away this energy of space to create a perfect vacuum even for a fleeting moment. The reason why is because space itself (with its energy, composed mostly by way of radiation) will exert an equally strong counteracting force to push itself back in and ensure the region is filled with energy at all times. The force will be so strong that an infinite and instantaneous force will be applied to a perfect vacuum if a technology could ever somehow find enough energy to make a region a perfect vacuum, thereby rendering the technology completely useless. It is just not possible. As a consequence of this reality, the only means possible to reach the stars is to travel close to the speed of light, and to use the electromagnetic concept to accelerate "exponentially" and control the inertial forces inside a metal symmetrical box. Then the application of Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity comes into play in what is called length contraction along the direction of motion of a spacecraft which reduces the journey time in reaching the destination for the pilots. But what is actually happening is that there is a displacement of the energy of space resulting in a heightened amount of energy concentrating on the front end of the spacecraft which has been displaced from another region of space further ahead as if gravitationally attracted to the moving object. It is this energy of space that helps to increase the apparent mass of the moving object as observed by someone sitting on the Earth's surface. Furthermore, the displacement in energy leading to a difference in energy density in space means the Universe counteracts this by pushing the moving object from behind to fill the lower energy density region causing the spacecraft to speed up and travel faster than the speed of light. It is really this extra push from the Universe through the energy of space that causes the pilots to reach the destination more quickly. It is not a length contraction as such. It is an optical illusion created by the heightened gravitational and electromagnetic lens created by the energy of space just in front of the spacecraft. It creates the illusion of objects directly in front to appear much closer than they really are. It is in fact the speed of the spacecraft that has increased even though the stationary observer on Earth continues to measure the speed of the spacecraft as travelling very close to the speed of light.
What is critical here is that you cannot cheat the Universe by creating a perfect zero energy density region for you to travel anywhere in the galaxy or universe instantaneously. That is a purely mathematical construct having no bearing in the real world. All you can do is reduce the energy density to a certain extent and this will have considerable benefits in terms of getting to your destination quicker as you approach the speed of light as measured by the observer on Earth. But in reality, the spacecraft is being pushed by the energy of space from behind to a higher speed than the pilots have realised. You can travel faster than the speed of light if you get close to the speed of light according to the observer on Earth, but not achieve instantaneous journey times and infinite speeds. You must keep to within the boundary set by the real Universe through the energy density of space.
Evidence for this claim can be observed in the UFO occupants. Practically all occupants that have been observed are invariably thin and mostly quite small. Why should this be the case? Why not have what we see in Stars Wars with obese creatures like Jabba the Hutt? A perfect vacuum would allow for it. Indeed, it will allow for the acceleration of objects of any mass (and any shape, so no point in developing just symmetrical metal bodies for the spacecraft all the time). Yet, for some reason, not so in UFO reports. How interesting. The importance of a symmetrical metallic design for the central body is essential. And so too is keeping the occupants lightweight. When we add the observations made by witnesses of the Roswell UFO crash of the incredibly lightweight nature of the materials found, as well as being almost indestructible (apart from the annoying lightning strike to bring the object down), it now makes perfect sense to make everything as lightweight as possible, including the occupants. The reason starts to become obvious. It is because the UFOs cannot exceed the speed of light (based on an observer looking at the flying object from a stationary position on the Earth). UFOs must observe the laws of physics at all times. It cannot cheat and defy the Universe. UFOs can only approach the speed of light. And it does so to such a level that it permits those occupants to participate in the flight. In other words, the technology is fast enough for people to reach the stars.
6. What do we need to do to see this concept in reality?
The technology and concept are known. We even have a patented invention to support the concept (except the inventor has never realised it). All we need to do now is conduct a simple experiment to emit radiation from a charged object in one direction and observe the "exponential" acceleration taking place. That is where we are at.
But to actually realise the potential and expected reality of this new technology, we have to change our view on how radiation moves solid matter.
Currently physicists think that radiation is too weak to move a solid object of any reasonable size to carry people and instruments. The argument being that radiation is using its mass-like property (or gravitational field according to Einstein's Unified Field Theory) to move only the mass (or interact with the gravitational field) of an object. By mass, we mean that separate component from the electric charge that scientists consider is "uncharged" and feels "solid" in the hand. If we were to accept this view as promulgated by Sir Isaac Newton many centuries ago, then the only way to get radiation to move an object of reasonable size is to accelerate it first to a phenomenal level. Acceleration can involve rotations, as well as linear acceleration approaching relativistic speeds. Then as the mass increases for the object, radiation can have more to "grip onto" and push the object away. But first you must accelerate the object. And the more massive the object is, the harder it becomes to accelerate it.
Clearly we have to make the object as lightweight as possible.
But do you need to accelerate the mass for radiation to have the sufficient force to move it (and potentially show this "exponential" acceleration)?
Not according to Einstein's Unified Field Theory. A careful look at this theory has revealed a new picture not considered before by the scientific community until now. Specifically, it is possible the gravitational field may not actually exist. And the concept of mass being "uncharged" may be incorrect. The new scientific view being brought forth for the 21st century is that all matter is constantly "charged". And the thing that helps us to move solid matter is the electromagnetic field acting on the charges. There are no other forces of nature to consider. And no uncharged mass or gravitational fields to worry about. When we look closely at the properties of the oscillating electromagnetic field, or radiation, it behaves in every way like it is ordinary matter (or a gravitational field). It has an inherent mass-like property that allows radiation to move solid matter. The question is how does it move solid matter? For the traditional 20th century physicist, it was simply to maintain Sir Isaac Newton's concept of a gravitational field or mass and somehow include this into the radiation through the famous Einstein equation linking energy and mass and assume the radiation is only moving the uncharged component called mass. In the 21st century, this view will change. By pushing the concept in the Unified Field Theory to its logical conclusion, we can now consider the possibility that there is no gravitational field, or even mass. It never existed. It is only the radiation that is moving the charges making up solid matter. And it does so not through the mass of the object, but only the charge. It is charge that controls the strength of the radiation force on solid matter. And that means, you can amplify the force by raising the charge of solid matter and the frequency of the radiation (which has the effect of grabbing more of the charges and moving it more effectively).
Raising the charge simply means adding more electrons to the solid matter.
There is no such thing as a truly "uncharged" object. Not even the neutron is uncharged (which is one of the implications of Einstein's Unified Field Theory). Sure, the neutron has been experimentally measured to have no charge. But how do you know for sure there is no change at every instant in time? A neutron just so happens to be composed of an electron and a proton when it is broken apart inside a particle accelerator. How convenient. But what evidence is there to suggest that the electron and proton have merged together inside a neutron to create a unique particle? The answer is none. There is every possibility that a neutron still has the electron and proton lurking inside and doing something else, which according to the Unified Field Theory may be merely spinning around each other. And if this is the case, it can fool physicists into thinking it is uncharged at all times, and the neutron is a unique particle. So while we know a neutron is composed of these two fundamental charged particles of an electron and proton, we have to consider the possibility that the neutron itself is constantly charged and reversing its polarity very quickly as the electron and proton move around each other at such phenomenal speeds.
So what does all this mean for UFO technology? It simply means that there is a way to amplify the radiation force on solid matter. You first increase the amount of charge on the surface of a metal. Then you accelerate the charge moving on and off the external metal surface, which is controlled by frequency. The higher the frequency, the higher the acceleration. There is no initial acceleration of solid matter through its mass in order for the radiation to have a greater impact in moving the solid mass. . Everything is done with the charge, and in accelerating the charge. Then, as the charge oscillates, the energy density of the radiation emitted by the charge can exert its reaction force on solid matter as soon as the radiation emerges from the charged surface. Just accelerate the charges (through frequency), and the radiation has more to "grip" onto by way of charges in the solid matter and use them to cause the object to recoil in the opposite direction more effectively. That is all you are doing.
It is a combination of charge and frequency of the oscillating charge (and, thus the frequency of the radiation that also increases its recoiling force because it raises the energy density and so can affect more charges during its recoiling effect) that will give you a full understanding of how UFOs work.
And that is why 20th century physicists have never been able to solve the UFO mystery. They have essentially maintained an outdated scientific picture on how radiation moves solid matter thinking the electric charge has no (or very little) contribution, and this is what is holding them back from seeing what is possible and achievable in the real world from a technological point-of-view.
7. How are electromagnetic UFOs constructed and how do they work?
The technology of the UFO is starting to reveal itself. So much so that we can begin to break down the UFO into simpler engineering components.
Essentially a genuine electromagnetic UFO based on the Abraham-Lorentz formula is built with a double shelled, newspaper thin and extremely lightweight, metal "built like a weather balloon" structure with the outer shell holding an oscillating electric charge followed by a gap to separate this charge from the internal cabin using an inner metal shell, together with an electrical source. There may be insulating sheets and plastic beams between the metal shells to provide structural support and keep the charge from touching the internal metal shell.
The outer metal shell to hold the oscillating charge can either be made with a shape-memory, or an inflexible, alloy. If using the shape-memory alloy method, a mechanism internally (say, a metal arm with a large metal sphere to inject the charge on the surface) can extend outwards to press against the shell over one end to help distort the shape slightly. This has the effect of increasing the curvature of the metal surface. Once you do this, the energy density of the emitted radiation coming off this curved surface will increase due to the increase in charge density congregating over this region. Later, the mechanism can be withdrawn to return the outer shell's original symmetrical shape, which will effectively stop any further acceleration from taking place. The alternative method is, of course, to use a very hard outer shell alloy shaped permanently to be non-symmetrical. To control acceleration, the amount of charge and/or its frequency has to be adjusted internally (most likely computer-controlled).
The inner metal shell maintains close to perfect symmetry at all times to help protect the occupants and instruments inside from excessive inertial forces and strong oscillating electromagnetic fields outside penetrating this Faraday's cage design.
As for the actual internal mechanisms needed to collect, store and distribute charge, the entire object is designed to utilise the energy in space when accelerating by collecting some of it using an antenna-system, store this energy into a battery, and use some of the energy in the battery to generate high voltages for propulsion. When combined with a switching mechanism to create an oscillating charge. the high oscillating voltage can be used to perform some kind of work (i.e., emit radiation for propulsion).
Hence the object is essentially a giant antenna for picking up energy from the surroundings as it accelerates; a giant battery to store the energy, not just temporarily on its surface (and hence can be described as a giant capacitor), but more permanently inside an internal storage material, and a giant electric light bulb as the outer metal shell glows brightly due to the electrons in the oscillating charge being accelerated and changing direction quickly resulting in emissions of radiation, not just the main waves for propulsion, but smaller radiation emissions acting as electrical noise over a relatively wide range of frequencies. Hence the UFO will not only be visible as it glows, but can be very hot to touch due to the emissions of infra-red radiation, and can also emit radio wave radiation.
Inside the UFO, electrical engineers might build a large-scale superconducting ring (i.e., the battery). This can be cooled by the temperature of space, although advanced knowledge from experienced civilisations may find superconducting materials to work at or near room temperature. The aim of the ring is to store vast amounts of continuously circulating electrical current (with no electrical resistance to slow it down). To draw upon some of this energy, insulated metal coils are wrapped around part of the ring. To oscillate the charge in the wires to help inject the energy to the ring's circulating current, a mechanical high-speed switch is used to turn on-and-off this energy. When the energy injection phase is off, the energy extraction phase begins. That means some of the energy is drawn from the superconducting ring with its own set of wires wrapped around the ring. The oscillating energy arrives at a voltage multiplier device. What emerges from the device is much higher oscillating voltages (or charge). This energy is then injected over one end of its outer shell surface. To ensure there is higher energy density radiation over one end of the object, we must apply a non-symmetrical shape to the outer shell (or it can be computer controlled injection of charge over specific curved regions or domes). At high enough frequencies of the oscillating charge, the acceleration will be felt by the occupants as smooth. A lower frequency of the oscillating charge will have the effect of a putt-putt or zig-zag motion as gravity temporarily takes over to pull the object down until the next radiation emission pushes the object up. At any rate, in accordance with the Abraham-Lorentz formula, the acceleration for a charged object emitting high-frequency radiation in one direction is said to be exponential. So as time passes, it will accelerate initially fairly slowly, but then quickly reaches phenomenal levels in a short period of time. It is at this point that a perfectly symmetrical inner metal shell will come in handy to control the inertial forces on the crew and passengers inside the object.
Now, as it speeds up the spacecraft, a single, or multiple, metal antenna(s) can stick out of the "top end" of the spacecraft. This is used to pick up energy in space as it cuts the planetary, solar and galactic magnetic fields. The charge separates to opposite ends of the antenna which can be tapped and injected into the battery using another set of coils to help keep the storage of energy in the superconducting ring topped up. The energy picked up by the antenna will naturally increase as the spacecraft gets faster. The energy is injected into the superconducting ring at the moment the switch is set to "off" for the propulsion system side. Then we quickly switch it back to draw on some of the energy in the superconducting ring to create further propulsion. This constant switching on-and-off ensures the energy picked up is oscillating and so is able to induce an electromagnetic field within the ring to help increase its storage of electrical energy, as well as create an oscillating charge for propulsion.
Of course, one should never be restricted to an antenna to collect energy. There are many ingenious ways an electrical engineer can generate or extract energy for the purposes of storing it for later use. Piezoelectric crystals running from the top to bottom of the spacecraft and centrally located inside the main cabin via a column to provide structural integrity can be made to compress slightly with each emission of radiation (and a flexible alloy hull). As a result, the crystals can produce electricity in the order of millions of volts. To prevent further input of energy into the system, a mechanical handle on the central column can be turned to adjust the position of the crystals such that it can prevent the radiation emission from pressing against the crystals.
Finally, the difference in temperature between the outer metal shell and inner metal shell can help to generate more electrical energy in a process known as the thermoelectric effect.
In essence, what we have here is an electromagnetically "breathing" machine in which electricity is drawn in from the surroundings for temporary storage and expelled for propulsion at a very high rate of switching (or frequency). That is basically how it works, and is what we are actually dealing with in those genuine UFO reports (if only other scientists did the work of properly understanding genuine UFOs)